Lunar Meteoritic Impact Search
of Chemistry and Physics
View A&M University
519, MS 2230
View, Texas 77446
This program is designed to standardize and
coordinate amateur observations of meteoroid impacts on the Moon. This field
has exciting possibilities but only if the observations are done in a uniform
manner and pooled to look for confirmations of positive observations. Anyone
interested in participating should contact the Coordinator above for further
information. The Coordinator maintains an "Impact"
e-mailing list of regular participants, e-mail him if you would like
to be added to the list. Click here to read the full mission statement.
What's New (02/07/2019)?
MIRROR SITE: https://www.pvamu.edu/pvso/cosmic-corner/lunar-meteor-watch/
Briefings and Upcoming Opportunities
News and Developments (2011-2016)
Jovian Meteor and
Links to Lunar Impact
Monthly Briefings and Opportunities to
Observe Lunar Meteors
A new year has begun and we will continue the routine that
has been in place in years’ past.
For the ongoing monthly routine observations, the defined
start is set at three days after New Moon until two days after First Quarter
for the first half. The second half resumes two days before Last Quarter and
continues until three days before New Moon. The actual duration of each
observing interval will vary due to ecliptic angle, lunar elongation, and
observer latitude. I am posting these plans on a quarterly basis, which
provides, at a glance, the observing schedule along with any meteor showers
active during the observing windows. In general the observations fall into
three groups: evening, from three days after New Moon (NM) to two days after
First Quarter (FQ); morning, from two days prior to Last Quarter (LQ) to three
days prior to New Moon (NM); and significant shower, when the moon is favorably
placed (usually during these two intervals) during annual showers (whose names
will appear in bold type) with ground-based ZHR’s of 20 or more.
We are moving through the evening phase of the current
campaign as of this writing (First Quarter moon is February 12). Note that the
Antihelion Source provides a weak background of meteors for 9 months of the
year, with a slight increase in March-April; late May, and late June, ZHR is 4.
Interval: 7 – 14 February (NM = 4
February; FQ = 12 February), evening; the alpha Centaurids
are active during this time, peaking on 8 February.
Interval: 24 February – 2 March (LQ = 26 February;
NM = 5 March), the gamma Normids are active during
Interval: 8 – 16 March (NM = 5
March; FQ = 14 March), evening; the gamma Normids are
active during this time, peaking on 15 March.
Interval: 26 March – 2 April (LQ = 28
March; NM = 5 April), morning; only the Antihelion
Source is active at this time.
Interval: 8 – 14 April (NM = 5
April; FQ = 12 April), morning; only the Antihelion
Source is active at this time.
Looking ahead, when the more significant showers of the
Lyrids and the eta Aquariids peak, the moon is semi-favorably placed. The
maximum of each occurs a day outside the designated observing interval.
Well-equipped observers are welcome to try to observe members of these
impacting the dark part of the waning gibbous Moon and the dark part of a very
thin crescent moon. As always, check back often for any updates on activity
related to these two major showers as well as any other developments. The full
observing plan for lunar meteors for 2019 can be obtained here.
Super Wolf Blood Moon Total Lunar Eclipse
By now many
are aware of a meteoroid impact that occurred just as totality was getting underway
during the recent total lunar eclipse of January 21, 2019. This occurred at 4:41:43
UT and was first seen on live streams from several locations such as Griffith
Observatory. The website “HDR astrophotography by Nicolas Lefaudeux
has a nice image of the impact along with a link of the best estimate of
location of the resultant crater. Access this at https://hdr-astrophotography.com/the-moon/.
to the event as it happened, Kenneth Schroeder from Washington State, submitted
observed this lunar meteoroid impact visually, in real time, using a pair of
hand held Canon 10x42 image stabilized binoculars. I was observing from Auburn,
WA, USA from a covered balcony. Partial light clouds were present during the
early eclipse but skies had cleared by the time of impact at 8:41pm PST on
1/20/2019. The moon was at an approximate altitude of 38° with no obstructions.
the flash was extremely brief, maybe 2/10 second and a pinpoint of white light.
The flash was bright enough in binoculars to immediately catch my
attention. There was no hesitation or
waffling as to what the flash was and I thought "meteor” instantly. The
Canon binoculars have a field of 6.5° so the full lunar disc was visible. My
view at impact was on the center of the moon so the flash appeared almost
directly down (vertical) in my field of view very close the lunar edge which
was in full shadow. The impact was not in my visual blind spot which might have
prevented the sighting. I continued to look for more flashes with the
binoculars for about one minute but none were evident.
the five minutes before impact I had a Swarovski 20x-60x ATS 65mm spotting
scope coupled to my Samsung Galaxy S8 phone. The phone camera was taking
time-lapse images every 5 seconds. About one minute after the impact I removed
the camera to scan the location with the scope at the location of the impact
flash…but saw nothing unusual.
up-loaded the frames from the camera to my desktop computer but, unfortunately,
the time-lapse frames did not show the impact flash.
on Tuesday 1/22/2019 that I saw the first online recorded videos that showed
the impact flash. Using those images of the lunar disc I confirmed that the
flash location matched the location that I observed in real time. What a surprise to see my visual sighting
verified by a video! I have watched several of the recorded videos and still
photos and believe that my visual sighting appeared to be even brighter relative
to the shadowed disc than the images show. In fact, I have not ruled out the
possibility that I might have seen the impact flash as a naked eye observation.
I still plan to try to estimate the visual magnitude to see if a naked eye
observation might have been possible."
has over 50 years’ experience in amateur astronomy and has better than 20/10
visual acuity. He is 100% certain of what he observed.
interesting to compare his observation with my own Lunar Leonid observation in
November 1999. My event was bright enough for me to be absolutely certain that
something happened, but I was using a 14-inch (36-cm) Cassegrain
telescope, while Dr. Schroeder was using a pair of binoculars. While I was
watching this eclipse visually with an 8-inch Cassegrain,
and imaging it with a camera zoomed in 20x, I was not
able to see or capture this event. Both of us "will always remember [our
Constantino Sigismondi brings
out an interesting coincidence: Dr. Sigismondi
observed an impact with a small 7x21 telescope on the eclipsed moon of 21
January 2000. This is exactly 19 years, or one whole Metonic
cycle, from the recent eclipse. Dr. Sigismondi, along
with Giovanni Imponente wrote about this event in
2000 in two papers in the WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor
Organization. Others have reported imaging and visually observing this impact
another event took place in the same region of the moon during the January 21,
2000 total lunar eclipse. Dr. Sigismondi observed an
impact with a small 7x21 telescope on the eclipsed moon and was also observed/videotaped and confirmed by Roger Venable
(IOTA/US). The interesting aspects of both meteor impact events include the
similarity in date of occurrence and location on the moon. Perhaps this is
indicative of an unknown meteor shower? The next Metonic
eclipse of this series, in 2038, is penumbral so observations of recurrences of
this nature will be impossible that day. However on or around January 21 in
future years, when the moon is favorably placed for such observations. We at
ALPO-LMIS will keep a special lookout for such opportunities in the future and
announce when they occur so as to motivate observers to participate in this new
year’s TLE impact event has renewed interest in observing total lunar eclipses
for meteor impacts. People are encouraged to check images and videos of recent
total lunar eclipses for the appearance of meteoroid impacts..
Cloudy night activities that would help in this effort is
if people find and watch videos via YouTube of past streaming events of lunar
eclipses to look for these events. If anyone finds such event, please report
these to me, the Coordinator.
Here is a list
of recent and future Total Lunar Eclipses (eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov). Visit the
NASA eclipse website for more information on duration of totality and location
2011 June 15
2011 Dec. 10
2014 Apr. 15
2014 Oct. 8
2015 Apr. 4
2015 Sep. 28
2018 Jan. 31
2018 July 27
2019 Jan. 21
2019 Jul. 16
2021 May 26
2022 May 16
2022 Nov. 8
2025 Mar. 14
2025 Sep. 7
2026 Mar. 3
Lunar Meteor Impact Flash Candidates from
Geminids, December 2018
received reports of three lunar Geminid candidates
that occurred when the shower was active in December 2018. The observations
were made from ROCG in Brazil by Tiago Augusto, Torres Moreira and Carlos
Henrique Barreto. These were recorded to have
23:40:22 on 12
00:13:36 on 15
00:22:27 on 15
00:59:30 on 15
01:05:06 on 15
You can access
a “slide show” showing each of these impacts in detail at this link. You may also
visit the mirror site which has the images on display on site. We
are looking for confirming observations for these events. The team did a
preliminary analysis with LunarScan and by
photometric analysis and was able to rule out spurious signals. These may or
may not be cosmic ray events but these represent the best impact candidates the
team was able to produce.
Lunar Meteor Impact Flash Candidates from
May and July 2018
narrowly missed having a global meteor storm! Would not have done any good for
the observations of lunar meteors (the moon was even closer to the dense ribbon
of comet debris, also…) since the Moon was New at the time. For more details,
go to: https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2018/10/14/earth-dodges-a-meteor-storm/.
Last July was
an active month for lunar meteor impact events. This post was made public
“Watch Two Meteorites Hit the Moon!”
The ROCG group in Brazil reports recording another lunar
meteor impact candidate, which was recorded to occur at 21:31:14 UTC on 14
August 2018. Please visit the mirror site, to view the images. Confirming observations
are sought after, and if you’ve recorded an impact candidate please report it
as soon as possible.
In addition to this, I received a report a few weeks ago
from Tiago Augusto in Brazil on some likely lunar meteor impacts, two of which
happened about the same time. An impact flash was observed at 23:01:36 UT on
July 17. This event was recorded as part of a lunar program that has been in
operation for two years, made at one observatory operated by ROCG (Remote
Observatory of Campos dos Goytazes) and the Exoss Lunar Team. Other observers
on this team include Carlos Henrrique Barreto (who recorded what may be the
same flash on 7/17/2018 at 23:01:26UT; we are as of yet unsure why this one has
exactly 10 seconds difference in time from the other), and Torres Moreira.
Jose Madiedo reports that their team recorded two
additional impact flashes on July 19 at 21:53:35UT and 22:29:07 UT, from Spain
with the MIDAS system. It is likely that these four meteoroids (July 17 and 19)
are associated with the alpha Capricornid meteoroid stream (although a
probability of such a correlation has not been determined yet)
In addition to the July 17 and 19 impacts, the Brazil team
reports a flurry of impact flashes in May. They “witnessed lots of suspicious
flashes between 05/22/1018 & 05/23/2018.” We are awaiting verification of
an outburst of meteoroids on the moon during this time frame. The eta Aquariids
is past peak and only minor showers are active at this time. The web site of
the Exoss Lunar Program along with images and data on impact flashes can be
A news report about the July 17 impacts posted on the
networking website LinkedIN (and also posted on space.com) stated that the
meteor impacts that hit the moon on July 17 were estimated to be about the size
of walnuts and determined to be members of a minor meteor stream alpha
Capricornids. This minor stream is derived from the comet 169P/NEAT. Confirming
observations for the above flashes are requested; also if anyone has observed a
flash that needs verification, please let us know.
We have at least a fair shot at capturing lunar Perseids
this month. The moon is New just before the maximum but the waning crescent
Moon leading up to New, as well as, and especially the waxing crescent Moon
after the 13th are favorably placed for observation of lunar Perseids. The section will continue the ongoing work of
coordinating observations for this and other meteor showers throughout the
remainder of 2018 and beyond. Check the ALPO website and/or join the
Lunarimpacts listserve for more information.
Two Lunar Quadrantid Candidates Videotaped
During the annual Quadrantid meteor shower the moon was
favorably placed for observation of lunar meteors. The Swiss-Italian team of
astronomers caught two events, highlighted below. If anyone in Europe happened
to be videotaping at the time please check your videos at the indicated times
below for signs of impact flashes. I plan to post the images at the mirror site
above on 19 January.
2017 January 1 at 17:47:15 UT, lasted 2 integration fields
(40 ms), imaged with one telescope.
2017 January 3 at 19:18:41 UT, lasted 4 integration fields
(80 ms), imaged with two telescopes.
Runs were performed from Rome (Italy), Gordola and Locarno
Reports of Lunar Meteors - 2015
The Swiss-Italian lunar meteor monitoring group, consisting
of observers Rafaello Lena, Stefano Sposetti and Marco Iten, reports the
observations of several impact flashes, each of which was confirmed by Dr. J.M.
Madiedo’s team. These events are summarized in the below table and were
observed in Europe when the Moon was below the horizon for North America.
However anyone monitoring the moon from North America with video and at least
an 8-inch telescope had a good chance of observing impacts from the Northern
Taurid meteor stream. The North Taurids are noted as being the very likely
source of the impact that was the first of over 300 events to be observed by
the Meteoroid Environment team at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center ten years
The four flash detected by Stefano have
following selenographic coordinates from Dr. Lena’s preliminary computation
using LTVT software package (Mosher and Bondo).
o 7 November 2015 03:31:26 UT
§ longitude 50.9° E +/- 0.4 °
latitude 24.0° N +/- 0.4 °=> north edge of Mare Crisium about 104 km
west of Eimmart crater
o 7 November 2015 04:14:07 UT
§ longitude 48.8° E +/- 0.4 °
latitude 0.70° S +/- 0.3 ° => Mare Fecunditatis about 54 km north
east of Messier crater
o 7 November 2015 05:06:45 UT
§ longitude 62.4° E +/- 0.4°
latitude 4.90° S +/- 0.3 ° => Mare Fecunditatis about 130 km north of
o 8 November 2015 05:14:09 UT
§ longitude 28.4° E
+/- 0.4° latitude 7.3° S +/- 0.3 °
.=> about 83 km south of Torricelli crater
One additional flash event observed 15 November
2015 18:13:57UT has also been confirmed by J.M. Madiedo
Many thanks to the Swiss-Italian team for their excellent
work and for reporting these results.
Other News and Developments
Videotaped in Jupiter’s Atmosphere
One of the ancillary activities of this section is to
observe meteors on other planets. Jupiter has historically provided the richest
field for such observations as seen from Earth’s surface. We encourage video
patrols of Jupiter on a regular basis to monitor the planet for meteors. It
would be useful scientifically to obtain a census of such objects and their
frequency of impact on Jupiter. The monitoring of meteors on Jupiter (and all
other solar system objects) will fall under the domain of the LMIS and I will
share more on this new venture by early 2018. One thing is certain…once we get
our observatory established at Prairie View A&M University in Texas, one of
the first projects I have in mind for the Meade 16-inch is regular monitoring
of Jupiter for meteor impacts and I will certainly need help from interested
and well-equipped observers from this Section.
On May 26th 2017 between 19:24.6 and 19:26.2 UT
Sauveur Pedranghelu videotaped an impact flash in Jupiter’s north polar region.
The flash lasted about 0.7 seconds and displayed two peaks in brightness. The
impact occurred at latitude 51 N and central meridian longitudes: System I = 74
deg.; System II = 159 deg.; and System III = 292 deg. More information about
this observation along with an image can be viewed at this website: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/new-impact-flash-seen-at-jupiter/
with Plume made by Marco Iten and reported by Stefano Sposetti, Marco Iten and
Marco Iten detected an interesting luminous event most probably generated
by a meteoroidal impact on the Moon occurred the 26 February 2015. The
position of the flash was along the terminator. The brightness of the
flash 0.16 s after the initial detection was +8.0 magV. After the main
lightdrop a successive residual diffuse light lasted for several seconds.
Under the assumption of a meteoroidal impact, we argue that this
post luminous event and its ever growing dimensions was likely caused by
sunlight reflection on ejected materials released by the impact. Marco Iten
detected it visually using no dedicated searching software.
We placed our preliminary report here: http://digilander.libero.it/glrgroup/
or directly to the pdf file: http://www.lunar-captures.com//Selenology_Today/ST_preliminary%20report_2015.pdf
video was shown to impact expert H. Jay Melosh of Purdue University (USA) and
he agrees that this appears to be a genuine impact event, with the ejection of
dust that is made visible as it rises into sunlight. He suggested making
measurements to find the height of the dust cloud. This animated gif image
(aka, the “video”) is accessible from the mirror site linked above.
Free e-Book Available for Download
general interest visual astronomy book (revised and corrected) entitled “The Art and Science of Visual
Astronomy”, is available for free
download. This is where I share my fascination with the aesthetic, visual side
of astronomy and include information on some of the best objects that amateur
astronomers look at on a regular basis. This is meant to instill interest in
visual astronomy as well as keep beginning astronomers hooked and interested in
observing. I cover a wide range, from the natural beauty of the Earth and daytime
sky, to the uniqueness of deep sky objects such as galaxies. A unique feature
of this free e-book are the tables of “equivalent distances” to objects of
various types (both within the local solar system and beyond), that is how
close one would be to a given object of interest to get a naked eye view that
matches what one sees through the eyepiece. Suggestions are always welcome for
improvement. The e-book can be downloaded from here. Please be aware that, because of all the pretty pictures,
it may take a few minutes to download completely. Once it is downloaded, you
can save a copy to your local machine.
Older Reports Related to Lunar
If you happened to have made observations of
the moon during the LADEE mission (November 2013 through April 2014) in search
of lunar meteors, but have not yet submitted your observations please do so as
soon as possible. Even if you have not looked over/analyzed your media for
events, send it to me and I can get it looked at. Although the LADEE mission is
now history (it crash-landed on the far side of the moon over a year ago, on
April 17, 2014), observations of lunar meteors are still needed. The complete
observing plan for lunar meteors in general for 2015 can be obtained here. The mirror site that complements
this site is online and will display images obtained by observers as soon as
they are received, to give near-real time updates of observers’ results. Also
included will be any information provided by the observer such as date, time,
location, etc. The mirror is part of the “Cosmic Corner” website at http://www.pvamu.edu/physics/cosmic-corner/.
Brian Day of NASA-Ames Research Center wrote:
“The Lunar Meteoroid Impacts and the LADEE mission online workshop was held on
Dec 5, 2013. Presenters included RickElphic (LADEE
Project Scientist), Brian Cudnik (Coordinator of the ALPO Lunar
Meteoritic Impact Search, Author of “Lunar Meteoroid Impacts and How to Observe
Them), Rob Suggs (NASA Meteoroid Environment Office), George Varros (pioneering observer of lunar
meteoroid impacts and author of “Nudger” lunar auto-guider software), and
PeterGural (author of LunarScan impact detection software). Because of
our international audience, the workshop was recorded and archived for
convenient viewing. You can view the workshop at http://connect.arc.nasa.gov/p4zpsnm6weh/.”
I highly recommend visiting this site and
watching the entire conference. Even though the mission has ended, there are
plenty of resources to help one get oriented to the observations of lunar
meteors. More information about the LADEE mission itself can be obtained from http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LADEE/main/.
One of the main objectives for ground-based
observations was to correlate the occurrence of impact events with changes in
the dust concentration as measured by LADEE. This, combined with careful
measurements of the maximum intensity of the flash, its light curve, and
knowing the impact velocity of the meteoroid, should enable us to get an
estimate of the luminous efficiency (how much impact energy goes into making
the optical flash) of the impact as well as a rough estimate of the mass of the
Meteor Yet Observed
Dr. Madiedo of the
University of Huelva in Spain reported a bright meteor flash caused by a space
rock impacting the Moon’s surface at an estimated 37,900 mph (61,000 km/h),
blasting out a new crater roughly 131 feet (40 meters) wide. This impact was
observed by a pair of telescopes that are part of the MIDAS (Moon Impacts
Detection and Analysis System) observatory, at 8:07UT on September 11, 2013.
The event occurred in Mare Nubium. The meteoroid weighed in at an estimated 880
lbs. (400 kg) and measured between 2.0 and 4.5 feet (0.6 and 1.4 meters) in
diameter. More information about this event can be found at
IMPACT EVENT FROM FEBRUARY 2014
Bill Porter reported a
recording of a possible impact candidate from about 12:30 UTC on Feb 23.
Location was in the eastern half of Lacus Somniorum, in the general area of
Hall Y1 dome and Hall K crater. George Varros reports: “Using the Virtual Moon
Atlas, the coordinates are close to LONG 36.724 LAT 34.105 - in the vicinity of
the Hall crater.” (An image will be posted to the CosmicCorner mirror site
sometime this week, or before March 6th). The impact appeared quite
faint according to Mr. Porter, who observed this from California, USA. A
comparison star was videotaped a few minutes later ( HIP 82951A, mag 6.55). The
“jury is out” on this one since it shows a gradual rise in brightness, a peak,
then a gradual fall, which is not consistent with a typical impact event.
IMPACT EVENT FROM DECEMBER 2013 and JANUARY 2014
Two candidates from Jan 5:
I don’t know what to make of them. They are both single video field events and
are dim but don’t look like cosmic rays because of their nice shape and
brightness centroids. They have a similar look, are dim and very short, just
like the one from Jan 4. (I’m rescanning
everything using Lunarscan 1.5 after experiencing anomalies or unexpected
Jan 5, 2014 00:12:26 Lat 15.321S
Lon 25.489E inside crater Cyrillus F
Jan 5, 2014 00:31:35 Lat 15.5N
[Images courtesy of George
This is a detection by
Marco Iten and Stefano Sposetti of a probable impact event on the moon. These
are members of the Swiss-Italian team of lunar observers.
2014 Jan 7
coordinates: 15.5° West, 19.5° North (Mare Imbrium)
of artificial satellites along the line-of-view: none in a 3deg diameter
instrument: 125mm refractor with WAT902H2 Ultimate
instrument: 280mm reflector with WAT902H2 Ultimate
courtesy of (left) M. Iten and (right) S. Sposetti.
Lunar meteor observer
George Varros reports the following impact candidate:
I found a single video
field event that may or may not be an impact. It occurred on Jan 4, 2014, at
23:49:37 UT, just south of Gambart B at
Lat 0.979 Long -11.56 I uploaded
and posted an image and a map, in a new folder labeled “01/04/2014 candidate”.
Although it’s only one
video field, the event does not have the visual appearance of a cosmic ray in
that it has a brighter center and is in a matrix of 3×3 pixels – it looks
It was not detected by
Lunarscan probably because the event is only seen in the even video field – the
odd field was blank along with the odd field of the next frame. The picture is
dark because I probably have my gain set too low.
received the following reports (December 7th and 8th)
from the Swiss-Italian Lunar Observation group. Within a day (or two or less)
of the date of this notice, images related to this report will be made
available on the mirror site. Stefano SposettiI reported the following:
Dec 7, Marco
Iten, Raffello Lena, Andrea Manna and I, made some video recordings of the crescent
Moon. We got good, but also poor sky conditions. 2 of us, Marco Iten and I,
detected independently and simultaneously a small flash on the Moon. The image
of Marco Iten shows a very nice bright point of light, lasting about 4 fields
(ie. 80 ms). My image is a lot blurred because of wind and strong turbulence,
the flash is washed out but clearly visible at the same instant and in the same
lunar region. The airmass at the moment of the detection was 3.9. No artificial
satellites were along the line-of sight inside a 3deg diameter centered on the
Moon coordinates. We performed no photometry of the flash. To note that Marco
Iten noticed the flash visually in real time, while looking at the laptop
2013 Dec 7
coordinates: 11° West, 14° South (Mare Nubium)
instrument: 125mm refractor with WAT902H2 Ultimate
instrument: 150mm refractor with WAT902H2 Ultimate
Marco Iten, Raffello Lena,
Andrea Manna and I made some video recordings of the crescent Moon in the first
half of December 2013.
“December 8th, 2 of us,
Marco Iten and Stefano Sposetti, detected independently and simultaneously a
small flash on the Moon. The image of Marco Iten shows a somewhat bright point
of light, lasting about 2 fields (ie. 40 ms). The flash of light in the
Sposetti's image is less evident.
“The airmass at the moment
of the detection was 2.19.
satellite INTELSAT 907 was at 66arcmin from the Moon centre at the moment of
the detection, ie. outside the field of view. No other satellites were in a
3degree diameter circle centered on the Moon coordinates.
“We performed no
photometry of the flash.
2013 Dec 8
coordinates: 18° West, 50° South (Longomontanus crater border)
instrument: 125mm refractor with WAT902H2 Ultimate
instrument: 150mm refractor with WAT902H2 Ultimate”
addition to these reports, the NASA-MSFC Meteoroid Environment Office reported,
during the “Workshop Without Walls” web-based meeting last week of a faint
impact candidate on the western (Celestial west) limb of the moon, imaged at 11:07:24.3 on 29
Someone else in e-mail communication mentioned this as being one of three
candidates observed that morning. I do not have an image to go with this report
but one can see it on the online workshop.
Impact Observed in Europe on 1 August 2013
I received the following
report from Raffaello Lena of GLR-Italy. He writes: “On August 1, 2013 at
02:21:55.7 UT, a small meteoroid has likely impacted the Moon' s surface. The
kinetic energy transformed by the impact into thermal energy also caused a
short a flash of light that was detected by telescopes of R. Lena, A. Manna and
S. Sposetti. The simultaneity of the flash and the same position on the lunar
surface indicates it is an impact. The event described above has been observed
by Raffaello Lena (GLR group, Rome Italy) with a refractor 130 mm and with a
video camera Mintron. The flash was also detected by Andrea Manna from Cugnasco
(Switzerlnd) with a Schmidt Cassegrain 200 mm and a camera watec 120N+. Stefano
Sposetti (Gnosca, Switzerland) detected the flash using two telescopes:
Refractor 150 mm and SC C11” equipped with watec 902H2 cameras.
Two observatories in
Switzerland are at a distance of 10.0 km. The observatory in Italy (Rome) is at
a very long distance of 558 km from Gnosca (Switzerland). Time synchronicity of
the various files is assured by using a GPS time inserters (KIWI-OSD) and an
Atomic Clock Synchronization protocol. The meteoroidal lunar impact detected on
August, 1, 2013 at 02:21:55.7 UT was simultaneously recorded by four
independent video recordings. The duration of the flash correspond to 0.08s and
reached a peak brightness of 8.3 ± 0.7 mag. The selenographic coordinates of
the lunar impact flash are determined to 73° ± 4° E and 27° ± 3° N, near the
crater Seneca C. The examined impact flash probably corresponds to a
α-Capricornids shower exhibiting favourable impact geometry on the impact
date. Enclosed an image of the detected lunar impact. A report of the observing
session (written by Sposetti, Manna and I) is published in Selenology Today 33,
which can be accessed with the following link:
Impact Yet Observed on the Moon, March 17, 2013
has observed the largest impact yet detected on the moon. At 3:50:55UT on
March 17, 2013, a flash peaking near magnitude 4.0 was observed at lunar
latitude 20.6N, longitude 23.8W. The explosion produced was the equivalent of
that produced by 5 tons of TNT. The crater generated by this explosion is
estimated to be approximately 20 feet (6 meters) in diameter and was produced
by a beach-ball sized meteoroid (about 35-cm diameter) impacting at 57,000
mph (26 km/sec), that possibly is part of a little known meteor shower called
the eta Virginids. More information about this extraordinary event can be
obtained at http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/16may_lunarimpact/.
A Likely Impact
from a Sporadic Meteoroid (2011)
The GLR (Geologic-Lunar Research) group in Italy reported a very likely
lunar meteoroid impact candidate on 11 February 2011 at 20:36:58.355UT. The
obsevers were Stefano Sposetti and March Iten. Stefano Sposetti reports, “Marco
Iten and me detected a probable impact flash on the Moon, simultaneously, from
our two observatories, located 16km apart. It lasted about 4 fields (i.e.
0.08s) in one video file; a bit less in the other video file. No artificial
satellites were in a 2-deg field of view at the moment of the detection and the
two flashes in the two video files are located at the same lunar feature.”
Since impact was observed with two telescopes separated by 16km (below the
arbitrary 30km threshold that we use to determine uniqueness) and it has been
verified that no artificial satellites were in the vicinity of the moon at the
time of the impact, this can be considered a confirmed event. More information,
including analysis, can be found at this website http://digidownload.libero.it/glrgroup/st22web.htm.
Meteors and Resources for Observers
Jovian Meteor #3
September 10, 2012, a Jovian meteor was observed by a visual observer in
Minnesota and confirmed by video in Texas. It was a two-second long, sixth
magnitude meteor that happened in Jupiter’s atmosphere. It is likely that the
object mostly burnt up in the atmosphere, as observations of the site on
subsequent rotations have yielded no markings. This event serves as a reminder
that Jupiter provides a potential wealth of information in the area of
meteoritics and the interactions between colliding planetary bodies. The story
can be read at http://www.spaceweather.com/ (Select September 12 2012 under “Archives” if you do not
see a link to the story anymore). A real-time video of the impact event can be
viewed at http://www.flickr.com/photos/19299984@N08/7976507568. And check out the article published just one day before
that declares “Fireballs Light Up Jupiter” at http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/09sep_jovianfireballs/.
Jovian Meteor #1,
Jovian meteor was videotaped as it happened at 18:22UT on 20 August 2010. The
event was recorded independently by two observers in Japan: Masayuki Tachikawa of Kumamoto city was first
to report the event, and Tokyo amateur astronomer Aoki Kazuo made the
confirming recording some 800 km away. More information on this event,
including pictures and video, can be seen on the August 23, 2010 page of www.spaceweather.com. Sky & Telescope also has a story on this which can be
read at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/home/101264994.html.
makes the second confirmed meteor observation on Jupiter in 2-1/2 months, with
the first being on June 3rd. The June 3 and 4 (2010) page of www.spaceweather.com has more information, including an image and a video of this
extraterrestrial meteor, which occurred at 20:31 UT on June 3rd. You
can also go to the news section of Astronomy Magazine’s website (http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=ss&id=26, scroll to the archives near the bottom of the page, select June
2010 and look for the link…) to get the news story. Amateur astronomers
Christopher Go (the Philippines) and Anthony Wesley (Australia) simultaneously
observed this event, making it the first ground-based confirmed observation of
an actual impact event on another world beside the moon (to my knowledge). The
impactor must have been a rather large object to have produced such a bright
flash of light as seen from a half billion miles away.
meteor did not produce any dark markings, and it is unlikely that this one will
do so as well. Both appear to be atmospheric fireballs that disintegrated
before reaching the clouds.
reinforces my suggestion (which is now being considered by others) to begin a
serious project of continuously monitoring of Jupiter for impact events. This
would need to be done at high powers, enough for 1 arc-second (or better)
resolution. A setup similar to what is used in lunar meteor or asteroid
occultation work, but with larger telescopes (at least 10-inch) and less
sensitive cameras (since Jupiter is bright) would do the trick, and could
reveal the true rate of such impacts with implications for Earth and the impact
Lunar Meteoroid Impacts and How to
is now available for purchase at bookstores as well as online. One can go to
Springer’s website and find more information about the book, at http://www.springer.com/astronomy/book/978-1-4419-0323-5. One can also go to Amazon.com and get it for as little as $17.56
(used) off the publisher price; the website is (it looks truncated so if this
link does not work, simply go to www. amazon.com and type in the title of the
book in the search field, and it will come up)…
LunarScan 1.5 by
Peter Gural now Available!
The latest version of the
automated detection software is ready for download. Go to http://www.lunarimpacts.com/lunarscan15.zip to download a copy.
This version is usable for formats up to 720x576 (PAL). The software is free
under the condition that you provide impact flash observations
(date/time/location) to NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office at the e-mail
address listed under "Contact Us" at http://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/news/lunar/index.html.
A “Quick Start” guide to
LunarScan can be obtained by clicking here or here.
Definitions to Describe Quality of Lunar
In order to better qualify the probability of an observation being
genuinely impact in nature, we have adopted a definitive classification
scheme. The descriptors are given below
Those impacts observed by at least two independent observers separated by
at least 50 km (30 mi) within 2 degrees of latitude and longitude on the
moon and 2 seconds of time (99% confidence).
Confirmed Observation: Those impacts observed by at least two independent
observers separated by less than 50 km (30 mi) within 5 degrees of
longitude and 5 seconds of time (95% confidence).
- Probable: Those impacts
observed by a single observer having the characteristics of an impact
observation--appearing on two or more video frames, a measurable
point-spread-function (i.e. appearing similar to a star), and/or
confidence at least 80%.
- Candidate: Any impact
observation submitted by a single observer with a confidence of at least
With these criteria in place, we
can better group observations in terms of quality and estimate the likelihood
of the observation being that of an actual impact event. It is very
possible that a candidate could be elevated to the status of "confirmed"
with the corroborative observation of a second independent observer, as stated
in the qualifications above.
Lunar Impact Information - Links
About the Lunar Meteoritic Impact Search Program, Observing
Resources, Information, and Guidelines
Mission Statement, General Purpose, and Goals (soon to be
Make Lunar Meteor Observations and Related Resources
A Guide to Observing Lunar Meteors I: General (soon
to be posted)
A Guide to Observing Lunar Meteors II: Video (soon to be posted)
Varros Lunar Meteor Home Page
NASA Lunar Meteor Impacts Monitoring
Spellman Lunar Meteor Home Page
Worthy of Resurrection: Two past ALPO Lunar Projects
History of Lunar Impacts
Robert McNaught's predictions of
the Moon's Encounters with Dust Trails (1997-2006)
Lunar Leonids 2000
Click here to learn how people were watching for meteor
hits during the 2000 Leonid event
Lunar Leonids 1999
flashers...on the Moon (before the Storm)
Observing Leonids on the Moon (before
A Leonid on the Moon? (First News of Possible Impact Sightings)
Nov.18th Lunar-Leonid Impacts